Created attachment 4190 [details]
Small Visual Studio 2012 Solution To Reproduce The Bugs
There are two major issues with the Ado.net TableAdapter.Update() method:
1.) If one inserts or updates a DataRow and then the TableAdapter.Update(DataSet) method is called, the method fails with an exception that the column cannot be null. Debugging the generated SQL command shows that all parameters passed are NULL.
2.) If one inserts or updates a DataRow and then the TableAdapter.Update(DataTable) method is called, the update succeeds but a RowError for the inserted/updated row is set. Any following TableAdapter.Fill(DataTable) fails with a ConstraintException - even if another table is filled.
The two bugs don't occur with Microsoft .Net and are reproducible with latest stable Mono on Windows 7, Mac OSX 10.8 and Linux Debian Wheezy.
I attached a small Visual Studio 2012 Solution with two projects which show the bugs (one for a MSSQL Database and one for a MySQL Database using the latest stable MySQL.Net Connector).
To test the solution please extract the 7Zipped file and create the database(s) with the supplied SQL Dump file. (for MySQL you have to create the user by yourself..). Change the connection string according to your server name and user id/pass..
Have a look on the comments in the source code to get more information..